These are just dummy files (implemented by the IDE) that serve documentation & autocomplete purposes for the builtin functions / classes.
If you want to see how PHP works under the hood, take a look at its source code: https://github.com/php/php-src.
If you want to extend PHP with custom functions, you can write an extension in C++. There are a lot of tutorials on how to get started.
solved Why PHP built-in standard functions have empty body? [closed]