1. cd: Change directory
2. ls: List directory contents
3. mv: Move or rename files and directories
4. cp: Copy files and directories
5. rm: Remove files and directories
6. mkdir: Create directories
7. rmdir: Remove directories
8. touch: Create empty files
9. grep: Search for patterns in files
10. find: Search for files and directories
11. chmod: Change file permissions
12. chown: Change file ownership
13. tar: Create and extract archives
14. gzip: Compress and decompress files
15. ssh: Securely connect to remote systems
16. scp: Securely copy files between systems
17. rsync: Synchronize files between systems
18. wget: Download files from the web
19. curl: Transfer data from or to a server
20. apt-get: Install and manage software packages
21. yum: Install and manage software packages
22. systemctl: Manage system services
23. journalctl: View system logs
24. ip: Configure network interfaces
25. ifconfig: Configure network interfaces
26. route: Configure network routing
27. ping: Test network connectivity
28. netstat: Display network connections
29. nmap: Scan networks for hosts and services
30. dig: Query DNS records
31. nslookup: Query DNS records
32. firewall-cmd: Configure firewall rules
33. system-config-firewall: Configure firewall rules
34. useradd: Create user accounts
35. usermod: Modify user accounts
36. passwd: Change user passwords
37. sudo: Execute commands as root
38. su: Switch user accounts
39. top: Display system resource usage
40. ps: Display running processes
Google search operators make searching for things online so much better.
Once you’ve mastered just a few of these special commands, you’ll wonder how you ever managed without them.
In this post, we’ll guide you through some of the best Google advanced search operators (that actually work) and show you how to use them effectively.
Prefer to watch the video version?
What Are Google Search Operators?
Google search operators (sometimes called Google advanced search operators or Google search commands) are special commands that extend the capabilities of regular text searches on Google.
Search operators help you narrow down search results, and they can be useful for everything from content research to finding online discussion to technical SEO audits.
They can also be used with other search engines like Bing and Yahoo too.
Just like Gmail search operators, using Google search operators help you find exactly what you are looking for in everyone’s favorite search engine.
They range from basic definitions like this:
To finding advanced indexation issues with websites:
Why Use Google Search Commands?
According to Internet Live Stats, 3.5 billion Google searches are made every day. That’s a lot of search results to go through to find the information you want.
Apart from showing off your search skills: using search commands make it faster to find things in Google.
Google has a 92.71% worldwide market share as of October 2020. That’s a lot of searches to go through to find what you want.
Google search operators are there to make your life easier by refining web searches. So, how do you use these magic Google cheat codes to find web pages fast?
It’s pretty simple, actually:
How Do I Use Google Search Operators?
It’s as simple as searching for something on Google. You can enter search operators directly into the Google search box just as you would a text search:
Except in special cases (such as the “in” operator), Google will return standard organic results.
You can use symbols and/or words in your search terms to make your results more accurate.
- Google typically ignores any punctuation (that isn’t part of a search operator).
- Don’t include spaces between the symbol or word and your search term. Using this search command, site:kinsta.com will work, but this site: kinsta.com won’t.
Google Search Operators List
Here is a complete list of all working Google advanced search operators:
- “search term” Use this to do an exact-match search.
- OR Search for this OR that. This will return results related to the two terms or both.
- AND Search for this AND that. This will only return results related to the two terms
- – Exclude a term or search phrase.
- * Acts as a wildcard and will match any word or phrase.
- ( ) Groups multiple terms or operators to control how the search is shown.
- $ Search for prices.
- define: Displays the meaning of a word in a card-like result.
- Cache: Returns the most recent cached version of a web page (as long as the page is indexed).
- filetype: Shows results of a certain filetype (PDF, DOCX, TXT, PPT, etc.)
- site: Limit results to a specific website.
- related: Find sites related to another site.
- intitle: Find pages that contain a specific word in the title.
- allintitle: Like “intitle,” this finds web pages containing all of the specific words in the page title.
- inurl: Finds pages with a certain word in the URL.
- allinurl: Similar to “inurl,” this finds web pages containing all of the URL’s specific words.
- intext: Finds pages containing a specific word in the content.
- allintext: Finds results containing all of the specific words somewhere on the page.
- AROUND(X) This proximity search finds pages containing two words (or phrases) within X words of each other.
- weather: Finds the weather for a specific location.
- stocks: See stock information
- map: View map results for a location search.
- movie: Finds information about a specific movie.
- in Convert one unit into another (like currencies, weights, temperatures, etc.)
- source: Find news results from a certain source within Google News.
How to Combine Google Search Operators
One of the most useful things about Google search operators is that you can combine them for particular use cases.
You can quickly find the source of a quote, an original image, or even official documentation for (almost) anything.
Just a word of warning: if you start combining operators and running lots of searches, you may be prompted to prove you are not an evil robot trying to spam Google:
Just fill in the captcha (unless you are an evil robot) and then continue searching.
Use your imagination. There are loads of search operator combinations. Here are just a few examples of combined search commands to take inspiration from.
40 Advanced Google Search Operators
Knowing the different parts that make up a search operator is useful, but having some specific uses is more useful.
So let’s put these Google search operators into action. You can achieve anything with Google’s advanced operators with some imagination (and some trial and error).
Don’t be afraid to play around either and edit the examples below. You might just discover a cool new search command.
1. Find related sites
Let’s say you’ve found a site that you want a link from, or maybe you just want to collect as many similar sites for some competitor research. Using the related: search operator will show you similar sites related to the URL you add.
It’s as simple as that.
2. Find Pages to Add Internal Links
This is one of my favorite ways to help improve WordPress SEO. And thanks to Google search operators, it’s pretty quick to do.
Internal links help visitors and Google move around your site. But to get any benefit from them, you need to be adding them to relevant pages.
This is where Google operators make this easy.
Simply search your site along with a word or phrase, and Google will show you relevant pages you can internally link to and from.
Now you can just go into those pages and add an internal link. UX improved, as well as your chances to score sitelinks. Not bad, uh?
3. Search Content on a Specific Site (And Find Any Indexation Errors)
You can use the site to find something from a specific website and limit your search to that single site. For example, you may use it to find the contact page or link opportunities of a specific site.
Or you can find specific content by using this operator:
This will show you any pages on the website you’ve searched containing the keyword you’ve added.
This can be a great way to find pages to add internal links to (so you drive more traffic to your website).
You can also use this Google search operator to find any indexation errors. It could be that a page that you want Google to index is not showing up. Or vice-versa, you may discover pages you don’t want to be indexed are showing up (and you might need to keep them private).
Say you check how many of your blog posts are showing up in Google with this operator:
You see that 19 pages are indexed but know that you have published 50 posts… then that would be a good enough reason to investigate what is happening to the other (non-indexed) articles.
Just keep in mind that using this method to assess Google indexation is only a very rough estimate. For more accurate search engine results, check out Google Search Console.
4. Find Exact Matches
If you put quotation marks around a word or phrase, the search results will only contain results that match exactly the word or phrase in the quotes.
You can take advantage of this operator to uncover guest post opportunities by using:
- “write for us”
- “become a contributor”
- “contribute to”
- “write for me”
- “guest post guidelines”
And you could even go a step further and combine the exact match operator with the site: operator to search a specific website for exact text. This is great for finding duplicate content.
5. Exclude Specific Words or Phrases
In this Google search operator, the minus sign is used before the search term to remove a particular keyword from the search results. It’s helpful when you’re looking for something with more than one meaning and want to exclude the other meaning.
It’s also useful if you want to remove some branded search results. You can exclude multiple keywords as well.
6. Include Specific Words or Phrases
If you want to make sure that some of the keywords are definitely included in every search result, you can use the + operator before that certain word. This is useful if you’re specifically searching within a niche topic.
7. Return the cached version of a page
Using the cache: Google search operator will return the most recently cached version of the webpage available on Google. This may be useful if a site is down and you still want to read something on it.
Just remember, the cached version probably won’t look as good as the live website:
8. Search for Specific Keywords in a URL
The inurl: operator followed by a keyword lists all search results that include the keyword somewhere in their URL. This can be helpful when finding guest post opportunities, contact pages, or potential direct competitors.
Examples you could try:
Try this search operator keyword inurl:guestpost to find sites that accept guest posts (probably) that are related to the keyword you’ve searched.
It doesn’t matter where you place your keyword (before vs after the search operator):
9. Find Keywords in Page Titles
The intitle: Google operator shows results that have the specified keyword or phrase within the page title.
Like all search operators, you can chain together most operators to get custom results.
For example, you could do an exact search for “mountain bike” and combine it with the intitle: operator to show only pages that contain “2020” in their page title.
Pretty useful for finding up-to-date product guides.
10. Find Exact Keywords in Page Titles
Similar to intitle: but more specific. If you start your query with allintitle: Google will only show results containing all the terms in the page title you specify.
For example, using the command allintitle:pizza is amazing will only show results that contain the terms “pizza is amazing” in the title.
Don’t forget it’s not just Google search where this operator works:
- In Image Search allintitle: will show images where the filename contains the terms you specify.
- In Google News allintitle: will show articles where the titles include the terms you specify.
11. Find Keywords Inside Page Text
Like the previous operators, the Google search operator intext: will show any results containing the keyword you specify inside the text of the page.
So if you’re looking for articles on specific subjects, this operator can help refine your search.
12. Find Exact Keywords Inside Page Text
The allintext: operator will help you find entire phrases or keywords in the page text.
Say you know you mentioned a term or phrase in an article but can’t remember which article. Use this operator to check.
For example, let’s say we know we’ve mentioned ‘Traffic comparisons for WordPress sites…’ on the blog before, but we can’t remember where.
(Hint: we do in our what does SEO stand for article)
The allintext operator would uncover this phrase in the text for us:
13. Find Keywords Inside Anchor Texts
This operator is pretty useful for SEO. The inanchor: search operator shows pages that have the keyword you’ve specified in the anchor text.
14. Find Exact Keywords Inside Anchor Texts
The allinanchor: Google search operator shows the entire keywords/phrases in anchor text:
To be honest, you’ll probably end up using this operator more than the regular inanchor: command as it’s more accurate.
15. Find Keywords Within URLs
The inurl: operator will show you results that contain the keyword you specify somewhere in the URL.
Useful for trying to remember that URL you forgot or finding pages that are about specific topics.
16. Find Exact Keywords Within URLs
Like the previous operator, this shows keywords that appear in URLs. Only this time, it will show the entire keyword or phrase you have specified.
17. Find Content Created by Specific Authors
This search operator helps you to find content creators quickly. Just drop in their name, and you’ll be able to find blog posts and articles written by them quickly.
A great way to use this Google search operator is for finding influencers in your niche who may be open to sharing your work or contributing to your site. This could be especially helpful if you are doing any SaaS marketing.
You can also use it to find influencers to link to in your content to build up some (mutually beneficial) relationships.
18. Search A Specific Location
The loc: operator (with a specific location) will help focus your results down to that area.
If you’re doing local SEO, this location-based Google search operator can be your new best friend for finding an audience that’s in one geographic place.
19. Exclude Any Subdomains
site: [website.com] -inurl:www
This combo of two operators site: + -inurl: helps to narrow down results so you can go through a site’s subdomains.
This search command filters out the www subdomain. Anything that begins with www will be excluded from the results, leaving you with the subdomains to check out.
20. Search for Specific Types Of Files
The filetype: operator helps you find a target page with a particular file extension. Google will return only results of a specific type of file that you define. It’s extremely useful when you want to find PDF or PPT files.
21. List Search Results That Comply With One Of The Conditions
keyword/condition1 OR keyword/condition2
The OR search operator allows you to search for search results that meet one of two conditions.
Simply write two search operators and put the OR command in capital letters between them. This tells Google to show results that satisfy either the first or the second condition. You can also use the pipe symbol | instead of OR.
22. Add a “Fill in the Blank” Option
keyword1 * keyword2
If you want to get more matches, you can use the asterisk * wildcard operator. Put the wildcard in a phrase, and you’ll get all the variations of that phrase. It’s useful for finding quotes and phrases.
Example: digital * strategy
This will return results for various things surrounded by these two keywords, like digital marketing strategy, digital media strategy, and the like.
23. Find Words near Each Other
keyword1 AROUND(X) keyword2
With this Google search operator, you can get results where your search terms are close to each other. The AROUND(X) operator can be used to define the maximum distance between the two keywords. The X in the brackets is how many words at most can separate the two keywords.
It may be useful for finding quotes and sentences you don’t exactly remember.
24. Search Between Specific Dates
The daterange: operator will show search results within a range of dates that you specify. It is a bit tricky because it uses the Julian date format, so you need to put the year followed by the number of days since the beginning of the year. Use an online converter to get the right date format!
25. Search Between Two Specific Years
There is an easier way to add date ranges than using the Julian date format. This Google search operator is typed as two dots and allows you to apply a year range filter for your searches.
Put two dots between two years, and Google will only return search results published between those two years. It’s easier, but it doesn’t let you search for specific days as daterange: does.
26. Find Relevant Forum and Community Discussion Topics
Relevant forums, subreddits, online communities, and Q+A sites (like Quora) are great places for promoting content.
You can quickly find discussions and questions being asked in your niche, and then join in.
Finding them is easy with Google search commands.
- Site:reddit.com intitle:keyword
- Site:quora.com intitle:keyword
- Site:niche-specific-forum.com intitle:keyword
27. Find PDF Downloads on .Gov Sites
[flu shot ext:pdf site:gov]
This is a good way to find documents to cite on any topic when doing online research.
28. Find Non-HTTPS Indexed Pages
Having a secure website is essential these days. With a couple of operators, you can find non-HTTPS pages on your site that have been indexed.
Sometimes, when using this command, pages will be indexed without HTTPS. But when you go and visit the actual page, you will land on the HTTPS version.
Don’t just assume that your pages are not secure just because they show up for this search operator. Double-check them.
However, if your page is showing up as not secure, check your SSL certificate.
29. Find Pages That Mention a Word in the Text
[Jeff Bezos -intitle:Jeff -intitle:Bezos]
Sometimes we just need to find articles that mention a name or a concept without focusing on it.
30. Find An Organization’s Twitter Accounts
[site:twitter.com @nytimes -inurl:status -inurl:hashtag -inurl:lists]
Want to find Twitter accounts that represent a company or organization? Google can actually be more helpful than Twitter here.
If you were wondering how this operator works:
-inurl:status -inurl:hashtag -inurl:lists tells Google to exclude any Twitter lists, hashtags, and status updates from the search results.
This leaves only Twitter profiles containing your search term.
31. Search Multiple Sites at the Same Time
pizza site:tiktok.com OR site:vimeo.com OR site:youtube.com
Find yourself repeatedly searching the same sites?
This Google search operator lets you search them all in one shot.
32. Find Any Duplicate Content On Your Site
"[duplicate content you want to check]"
Duplicate content is bad for your site. Thankfully, it’s easy to check with this simple search operator.
Just wrap the text you want to check inside quotation marks, and Google will show you any pages matching it.
You never know. You may find people stealing and republishing your content without permission or attribution.
33. Find Any Unwanted Files or Pages on Your Website
It is easy to lose track and forget about pages and files like PDFs, Word docs, and slideshows you may have uploaded to your site.
Using the filetype: search operator, you can specify a file type and then search your site (or the whole web) for a keyword, and the results will show the files that match.
What File Types Do Google Search Operators Support?
I’m glad you asked. Here is a list of the supported formats:
- Adobe Flash (.swf)
- Adobe Portable Document Format (.pdf)
- Adobe PostScript (.ps)
- Autodesk Design Web Format (.dwf)
- Google Earth (.kml, .kmz)
- GPS eXchange Format (.gpx)
- Hancom Hanword (.hwp)
- HTML (.htm, .html, other file extensions)
- Microsoft Excel (.xls, .xlsx)
- Microsoft PowerPoint (.ppt, .pptx)
- Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx)
- OpenOffice presentation (.odp)
- OpenOffice spreadsheet (.ods)
- OpenOffice text (.odt)
- Rich Text Format (.rtf)
- Scalable Vector Graphics (.svg)
- TeX/LaTeX (.tex)
- Text (.txt, .text, other file extensions)
- Basic source code (.bas)
- C/C++ source code (.c, .cc, .cpp, .cxx, .h, .hpp)
- C# source code (.cs)
- Java source code (.java)
- Perl source code (.pl)
- Python source code (.py)
- Wireless Markup Language (.wml, .wap)
- XML (.xml)
34. Find Niche Relevant Resource Page Link Opportunities
inurl:resources intitle:resources mountain bike
Resource pages are round-ups of the best resources on a specific topic.
They range from more structured pages like our Resource Center page):
To more simple (but still useful) pages like this:
Resource pages can be great places to get listed on, providing you have a relevant and useful resource to contribute.
Have a play around with these search operators and see what you find:
- [topic] intitle:resources | inurl: resources
- Intitle:[topic] AND intitle:resources AND inurl:resources
- Allintitle:[topic] 5|6|7|8|9|10|11|12|13|14|15 resources
Once you’ve found them, it’d a matter of finding the site admin’s email address and reach out asking for your link to be included.
35. Find Sites to Pitch Your Feature Infographics To
[topic] intitle:infographic inurl:infographic
Infographics can be a great visual asset to create for your site. But creating them is only half the battle. You need to distribute them too.
Using this operator to find sites that may be interested in featuring your infographic.
36. Find Social Profiles for Outreach
[name] site:twitter.com | site:facebook.com | site:linkedin.com
Want to reach out to a specific person on social media? Or maybe you want to do some digging and see if you can find their contact details.
Use this search operator to find them. You’ll need to know their name obviously for this to work.
You can then contact them directly via social media and start building relationships.
37. Find Sites That Mention Your Competitors (But Not You)
intext:[competitor] OR intext:[competitor] -site:website.com -site:website.com
Using this combination of site: and intext: and OR, you can see sites that have mentioned competitors… but not you.
Play around with the Google search operators to find pages that are talking about sites you are competing with, but not your site.
Let’s say you find a page that mentions a competitor, but it doesn’t mention you. A quick action item would be to reach out and ask to be included.
38. Find Opportunities for Sponsored Posts
[topic] intext:"this is a sponsored post by"
Sponsored posts are posts you pay to be featured in that promote your website, brand, product, or service. The approach is pretty similar to finding guest post opportunities:
Here are a few ways to find sponsored post opportunities using Google search operators:
- sponsored post results
- [topic] intext:”this is a sponsored post by”
- [topic] intext:”this post was sponsored by”
- [topic] intitle:”sponsored post”
- [topic] intitle:”sponsored post archives” inurl:”category/sponsored-post”
- “sponsored” AROUND(3) “post”
39. Find How Often Competing Sites Are Publishing New Content
site:[website} (+ some filtering in Google)
Most blogs live inside either a subfolder or on a subdomain:
To see how often a website is publishing content:
- Do a site: search for subfolder or subdomain where the content is
- Go to Tools on Google
- Select a date range.
You’ll now have a better picture of how regularly the target site publishes any new content (based on the indexed results).
You can also combine this operator with a search query to see how much content a site has published on a specific topic.
40. Find Sites That Are Linking to Your Competitors
The link: search operator allows you to see where your competitors are getting links. Combine this with this Google’s time period filter, and you’ll be able to see places the site has been linked to recently.
A quick note on this one: the
link: Google operator was deprecated by Google in 2017, and it may show inconsistent and unreliable results. However, it still brings back results that may be useful as a starting point for your research.
Being able to refine your Google searches with Google search operators is a handy research skill. This advanced yet lesser-known functionality makes Google an extremely flexible online tool. Even just knowing a few basic commands can give you an edge.
Now it’s your turn: What are the Google search operators you use the most? Also, do you think we missed any on our list? Let us know in the comments!
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